# An introduction to R and RStudio

/ practicals   / #R #Rstudio

# Introduction

This tutorial is part of the pre-course materials of a “Short Course on Outbreak Analysis and Modelling for Public Health.” The aim is to introduce students to the very basic concepts of R and R Studio, in order to get some baseline knowledge in R and R programming.

# Installing R and R Studio

R is a free software environment and RStudio is a free and open-source environment for working in R. Both R and Studio should be installed separately.

R can be installed from the R Project for Statistical computing website: https://r-project.org/

RStudio can be installed from its website. The free version is sufficient to conduct routine epidemiological analyses

Once both are installed, we work from RStudio.

For a very detailed explanation on how to install R and R Studio, please visit the video made by Thibaut Jombart from RECON https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LbezGA_Yle8

# Project setup

One of the great advantages of using RStudio is the possibility of using R Projects (indicated by an .Rproj file) to organise the work space, history, and source documents.

To create this, do the following steps:

1. Open RStudio and on the top right corner find New Project
2. Create a new RStudio project in a new directory that you can call “introR”

1. Create the sub folders you need for organising your work (i.e. data, scripts, figs)

In the end, your project should look something like this image

# Structures in R

• Homogeneous: atomic vectors (1d), matrices (2d), and arrays (nd)
• Heterogeneous: data frames and lists

### Atomic vectors

These are the most basic structures in R and have only one dimension (1d):

• Double (numeric)
• Logic
• Character
• Integer
vector_double <- c(1, 2, 3, 4)

vector_logic <- c(TRUE, FALSE, FALSE, TRUE)

vector_character <- c("A", "B", "C", "D")

vector_integer <- c(1L, 2L, 3L, 4L)

To evaluate which type of vector we have, we can use two commands typeof

typeof(vector_double)
## [1] "double"
typeof(vector_logic)
## [1] "logical"
typeof(vector_character)
## [1] "character"
typeof(vector_integer)
## [1] "integer"

### Matrices

Matrices are structures a bit more complex than vectors, with two main characteristics:

• A matrix is composed of only one type of vector
• A matrix has two dimensions

A command to build a matrix uses three arguments:

• data corresponds to the list of vectors we want to use in the matrix
• nrow the number of rows where the data is going to be split (first dimension)
• ncol the number of columns where the data is going to be split (second dimension)

By default the matrix is filled by column, unless we specify otherwise using byrow = TRUE

matrix_of_doub <-  matrix(data = vector_double, nrow = 2, ncol = 2)
matrix_of_doub
##      [,1] [,2]
## [1,]    1    3
## [2,]    2    4
dim(matrix_of_doub)
## [1] 2 2

Make and test other types of matrices

matrix_of_log <-  matrix(data = vector_logic, nrow = 4, ncol = 3)
matrix_of_log

matrix_of_char <- matrix(data = vector_character, nrow = 4, ncol = 4)
matrix_of_char

matrix_of_int <-  matrix(data = vector_integer, nrow = 4, ncol = 5)
matrix_of_int

### Arrays

Array is a special type of matrix, where there is more than two dimensions (n dimensions).

An array of two dimensions is a matrix

To create an array we need three arguments: data and dim.

In turn, the dim argument of an array is composed of three arguments being: 1) number of rows, 2) number of columns and 3) number of dimensions.

vector_example <-1:18
array_example <- array(data = vector_example, dim = c(2, 3, 3))

dim(array_example)
## [1] 2 3 3
array_example
## , , 1
##
##      [,1] [,2] [,3]
## [1,]    1    3    5
## [2,]    2    4    6
##
## , , 2
##
##      [,1] [,2] [,3]
## [1,]    7    9   11
## [2,]    8   10   12
##
## , , 3
##
##      [,1] [,2] [,3]
## [1,]   13   15   17
## [2,]   14   16   18

### Data frames

A data.frame is a heterogeneous and bi dimensional structure, similar but not exactly equal to a matrix. Unlike a matrix, various types of vectors can be part of a single data frame.

The arguments for the data.frame command are simply the columns in the data frame. Each column should have the same number of rows to be able to fit into a data frame.

Data frames do not allow vectors with different lengths. When the length of the vector is smaller than the length of the data frame, the data frame coerces the vector to its length.

data_example <- data.frame(vector_character, vector_double, vector_logic, vector_integer)

To access the general structure of a data frame we use the command str

str(data_example)
## 'data.frame':    4 obs. of  4 variables:
##  $vector_character: chr "A" "B" "C" "D" ##$ vector_double   : num  1 2 3 4
##  $vector_logic : logi TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE ##$ vector_integer  : int  1 2 3 4

To access the different components of the data frame we use this syntax [,] where the first dimension corresponds to rows and the second dimension to columns.

data_example[1, 2]
## [1] 1

### Lists

A list is the most complex structure in base R. A list can be composed of any type of objects of any dimension.

list_example <- list(vector_character,
matrix_of_doub,
data_example)

To access the different components of a list, we use the syntax [] where the argument is simply the order within the list.

list_example[1]
## [[1]]
## [1] "A" "B" "C" "D"

# Functions

A function is one of the structures that makes R a very powerful platform for programming.

There are various types of functions

• Primitive or base functions: these are the default functions in R under the base package. For instance, these can include basic arithmetic operations, but also more complex operations such as extraction of median values median or summary of a variable.
• Functions from packages : these are functions created within a package. For example the function glm in the stats package.
• User-built functions: these are functions that any user creates for a customized routine. These functions could become part of a package.

The basic components of a function are:

• name: this is the name that we give to our function (for example: myfun)
• formals or arguments: these are the series of elements that control how to call the function.
• body: this is the series of operations or modifications to the arguments.
• output: this is the results after modifying the arguments. If this output corresponds to a series of data, we can extract it using the command return.
• function internal environment: means the specific rules and objects within a function. Those rules and objects will not work outside the function.

## User-built function (example 1)

Let’s build a function that calculates our Body Mass Index (BMI)

# The name (myfun)
myfun <- function(weight,
height) # The arguments (weight and height)
{
# The body

BMI      <- weight/(height^2)

return(BMI) # Retun specification for the output
}

formals(myfun)
## $weight ## ## ##$height
body(myfun)
## {
##     BMI <- weight/(height^2)
##     return(BMI)
## }
environment(myfun)
## <environment: R_GlobalEnv>

myfun(weight = 88, height = 1.78)
## [1] 27.77427

## User-built function (example 2)

Let’s build a function that has default values. This way, we don’t need to specify some of the arguments as they can be set by default.

# The name (myfun2)
myfun2 <- function(weight,
height,
units = 'kg/m2') # The arguments (weight and height)
{
# The body
BMI      <- weight/(height^2)
output <- paste(round(BMI, 1), units)

return(output) # Retun specification for the output
}

myfun2(weight = 88, height = 1.78)
## [1] "27.8 kg/m2"

myfun2(weight = 8800, height = 178, units = 'g/cm2')
## [1] "0.3 g/cm2"

# R packages

As described by Hadley Wickham in his book R packages, a package is the fundamental unit of reproducible R code. A package should include at least:

• Reusable R functions
• Documentation
• Sample data

Any R user can build a package that can then be used or modified by others as they are open-source.

The R packages are available on the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN) https://cran.r-project.org

Here are the basic commands to use packages:

1. Install a package with the command install.packages("package-name")
2. Use them in R with library("package-name")

Let’s install one of the packages from RECON.

install.packages('incidence')
library(incidence)

Library is a directory containing installed packages. We can use lapply(.libPaths(), dir) to check which packages are active currently in our R session.

An important part of a package is the documentation. This is stored in the vignettes. To access the basic documentation on a package we can use browseVignettes("incidence")

# Scoping and Environments

A new environment is created when we create a function. This is important! When we call a function, R first looks for the elements within that function; if the elements do not exist within that function, then R looks for them in the global environment.

• Example of a function in which objects are only avalible in the global environment
mynewfun <- function() {
z = x + y
return(z)

}

x = 1
y = 3

mynewfun()
## [1] 4
• Example of a function in which objects are defined partially in the local environment and partially in the global envoronment
mynewfun <- function(xx) {
zz = xx + yy
return(zz)

}

yy = 4
mynewfun(xx = 4)
## [1] 8

This characteristic of R is very important when running any analysis or routine. It is always recommended to NOT use elements within a function that are only available in the global environment.

# Working with probability distributions

All distributions in R can be explored by the use of functions that allow us to get different forms of a distribution. Fortunately, all distributions work in the same way, so if you learn to work with one, you will have the general idea of how to work with the others

For example, for a normal distribution we use ?dnorm to explore the arguments in this function

• dnorm = density function with default arguments (x, mean = 0, sd = 1, log = FALSE)
• pnorm gives the distribution function
• qnorm gives the quantile function
• rnorm generates random deviates

Many distributions are part of the stats package that comes by default with R such as the uniform, poisson, and binomial, among others. For other less frequently used distributions, sometimes you may need to install other packages. For a non-exhaustive list of the most used distrubutions and their arguments, see the table below:

name probability quantile distribution random
Beta pbeta() qbeta() dbeta() rbeta()
Binomial pbinom() qbinom() dbinom() rbinom()
Cauchy pcauchy() qcauchy() dcauchy() rcauchy()
Chi-Square pchisq() qchisq() dchisq() rchisq()
Exponential pexp() qexp() dexp() rexp()
Gamma pgamma() qgamma() dgamma() rgamma()
Logistic plogis() qlogis() dlogis() rlogis()
Log Normal plnorm() qlnorm() dlnorm() rlnorm()
Negative Binomial pnbinom() qnbinom() dnbinom() rnbinom()
Normal pnorm() qnorm() dnorm() rnorm()
Poisson ppois() qpois() dpois() rpois()
Student’s t pt() qt() dt() rt()
Uniform punif() qunif() dunif() runif()
Weibull pweibull() qweibull() dweibull() rweibull()

# Create and open data sets

R allows users not only to open but also to create data sets. There are three sources of data sets:

• Data set imported as such (from .xlsx, .csv, .stata, or .RDS formats, among many others)
• Data set that is part of a R package
• Data set created in our R session

# Tidyverse

In order to better manage data sets, we recommend installing and using the tidyverse package, which automatically uploads several packages (dplyr, tidyr, tibble, readr, purr, among others) that are useful for data wrangling.

library(tidyverse)

Let’s open and explore a data set imported from Excel

This is the data set from our RECON practical on early outbreak analysis: - PHM-EVD-linelist-2017-11-25.xlsx:

Let’s save this data set in the same directory in which we are currently working.

To import data sets from Excel, we can use the library readxl, which is linked to tidyverse. However, we still need to load the readxl library, as it is not a core tidyverse package.

library(readxl)
library(here)
dat <- read_excel(here("data/PHM-EVD-linelist-2017-11-25.xlsx"))

Next, we will take a look at some of the most commonly used functions from tidyverse.

We will be using the pipe function %>% often. This is key to using tidyverse and makes programming easier. The pipe function allows the user to emphasize a sequence of actions on an object.

From the package dyplr, the most common functions are:

• glimpse: used to rapidly explore a data set
• arrange: arranges the data set by the value of a particular variable if numeric, or by alphabetic order if it is a character.
• mutate: generates a new variable
• rename: changes a variable’s name
• summarise: reduces the dimensions of a data set
glimpse(dat)
## Rows: 50
## Columns: 4
## $case_id <chr> "39e9dc", "664549", "b4d8aa", "51883d", "947e40", "9aa197", "e~ ##$ onset   <dttm> 2017-10-10, 2017-10-16, 2017-10-17, 2017-10-18, 2017-10-20, 2~
## $sex <chr> "female", "male", "male", "male", "female", "female", "female"~ ##$ age     <dbl> 62, 28, 54, 57, 23, 66, 13, 10, 34, 11, 23, 23, 9, 68, 37, 13,~

dat %>% arrange(age)
## # A tibble: 50 x 4
##    case_id onset               sex      age
##    <chr>   <dttm>              <chr>  <dbl>
##  1 ac8d9d  2017-11-23 00:00:00 female     5
##  2 8c5776  2017-11-02 00:00:00 female     7
##  3 426b6d  2017-11-08 00:00:00 female     7
##  4 93a3ba  2017-11-10 00:00:00 male       7
##  5 5eb2b0  2017-11-13 00:00:00 female     7
##  6 1efd54  2017-11-04 00:00:00 male       8
##  7 e37897  2017-10-28 00:00:00 female     9
##  8 59e66c  2017-11-16 00:00:00 male       9
##  9 af0ac0  2017-10-21 00:00:00 male      10
## 10 778316  2017-11-04 00:00:00 female    10
## # ... with 40 more rows
dat %>% mutate(fecha_inicio_sintomas = onset)
## # A tibble: 50 x 5
##    case_id onset               sex      age fecha_inicio_sintomas
##    <chr>   <dttm>              <chr>  <dbl> <dttm>
##  1 39e9dc  2017-10-10 00:00:00 female    62 2017-10-10 00:00:00
##  2 664549  2017-10-16 00:00:00 male      28 2017-10-16 00:00:00
##  3 b4d8aa  2017-10-17 00:00:00 male      54 2017-10-17 00:00:00
##  4 51883d  2017-10-18 00:00:00 male      57 2017-10-18 00:00:00
##  5 947e40  2017-10-20 00:00:00 female    23 2017-10-20 00:00:00
##  6 9aa197  2017-10-20 00:00:00 female    66 2017-10-20 00:00:00
##  7 e4b0a2  2017-10-21 00:00:00 female    13 2017-10-21 00:00:00
##  8 af0ac0  2017-10-21 00:00:00 male      10 2017-10-21 00:00:00
##  9 185911  2017-10-21 00:00:00 female    34 2017-10-21 00:00:00
## 10 601d2e  2017-10-22 00:00:00 male      11 2017-10-22 00:00:00
## # ... with 40 more rows

## # A tibble: 50 x 4
##    <chr>   <dttm>              <chr>  <dbl>
##  1 39e9dc  2017-10-10 00:00:00 female    62
##  2 664549  2017-10-16 00:00:00 male      28
##  3 b4d8aa  2017-10-17 00:00:00 male      54
##  4 51883d  2017-10-18 00:00:00 male      57
##  5 947e40  2017-10-20 00:00:00 female    23
##  6 9aa197  2017-10-20 00:00:00 female    66
##  7 e4b0a2  2017-10-21 00:00:00 female    13
##  8 af0ac0  2017-10-21 00:00:00 male      10
##  9 185911  2017-10-21 00:00:00 female    34
## 10 601d2e  2017-10-22 00:00:00 male      11
## # ... with 40 more rows
glimpse(dat)
## Rows: 50
## Columns: 4
## $case_id <chr> "39e9dc", "664549", "b4d8aa", "51883d", "947e40", "9aa197", "e~ ##$ onset   <dttm> 2017-10-10, 2017-10-16, 2017-10-17, 2017-10-18, 2017-10-20, 2~
## $sex <chr> "female", "male", "male", "male", "female", "female", "female"~ ##$ age     <dbl> 62, 28, 54, 57, 23, 66, 13, 10, 34, 11, 23, 23, 9, 68, 37, 13,~

dat %>% group_by(sex) %>% summarise(number = n())
## # A tibble: 2 x 2
##   sex    number
##   <chr>   <int>
## 1 female     26
## 2 male       24

dat %>% filter(age >14)
## # A tibble: 34 x 4
##    case_id onset               sex      age
##    <chr>   <dttm>              <chr>  <dbl>
##  1 39e9dc  2017-10-10 00:00:00 female    62
##  2 664549  2017-10-16 00:00:00 male      28
##  3 b4d8aa  2017-10-17 00:00:00 male      54
##  4 51883d  2017-10-18 00:00:00 male      57
##  5 947e40  2017-10-20 00:00:00 female    23
##  6 9aa197  2017-10-20 00:00:00 female    66
##  7 185911  2017-10-21 00:00:00 female    34
##  8 605322  2017-10-22 00:00:00 female    23
##  9 e399b1  2017-10-23 00:00:00 female    23
## 10 f658bc  2017-10-28 00:00:00 male      68
## # ... with 24 more rows

select(dat, starts_with("date"))
## # A tibble: 50 x 0
select(dat, ends_with("loc"))
## # A tibble: 50 x 0

slice(dat, 10:15)
## # A tibble: 6 x 4
##   case_id onset               sex      age
##   <chr>   <dttm>              <chr>  <dbl>
## 1 601d2e  2017-10-22 00:00:00 male      11
## 2 605322  2017-10-22 00:00:00 female    23
## 3 e399b1  2017-10-23 00:00:00 female    23
## 4 e37897  2017-10-28 00:00:00 female     9
## 5 f658bc  2017-10-28 00:00:00 male      68
## 6 a8e9d8  2017-10-29 00:00:00 female    37
dat[10:15, ]
## # A tibble: 6 x 4
##   case_id onset               sex      age
##   <chr>   <dttm>              <chr>  <dbl>
## 1 601d2e  2017-10-22 00:00:00 male      11
## 2 605322  2017-10-22 00:00:00 female    23
## 3 e399b1  2017-10-23 00:00:00 female    23
## 4 e37897  2017-10-28 00:00:00 female     9
## 5 f658bc  2017-10-28 00:00:00 male      68
## 6 a8e9d8  2017-10-29 00:00:00 female    37

filter(dat, sex == "female", age <= 30)
## # A tibble: 19 x 4
##    case_id onset               sex      age
##    <chr>   <dttm>              <chr>  <dbl>
##  1 947e40  2017-10-20 00:00:00 female    23
##  2 e4b0a2  2017-10-21 00:00:00 female    13
##  3 605322  2017-10-22 00:00:00 female    23
##  4 e399b1  2017-10-23 00:00:00 female    23
##  5 e37897  2017-10-28 00:00:00 female     9
##  6 8c5776  2017-11-02 00:00:00 female     7
##  7 88526e  2017-11-03 00:00:00 female    20
##  8 778316  2017-11-04 00:00:00 female    10
##  9 525dfa  2017-11-06 00:00:00 female    10
## 10 b5ad13  2017-11-07 00:00:00 female    21
## 11 8bed66  2017-11-08 00:00:00 female    29
## 12 426b6d  2017-11-08 00:00:00 female     7
## 13 c2a389  2017-11-10 00:00:00 female    26
## 14 5eb2b0  2017-11-13 00:00:00 female     7
## 15 b7faf4  2017-11-16 00:00:00 female    10
## 16 944ba3  2017-11-19 00:00:00 female    30
## 17 95fc1d  2017-11-19 00:00:00 female    15
## 18 5c5c05  2017-11-20 00:00:00 female    21
## 19 ac8d9d  2017-11-23 00:00:00 female     5

Let’s open and explore a data set that is part of a package

# install.packages("outbreaks")
library(outbreaks)
## Warning: package 'outbreaks' was built under R version 4.0.4
measles_dat <- outbreaks::measles_hagelloch_1861
class(measles_dat)
## [1] "data.frame"
##   case_ID infector date_of_prodrome date_of_rash date_of_death age gender
## 1       1       45       1861-11-21   1861-11-25          <NA>   7      f
## 2       2       45       1861-11-23   1861-11-27          <NA>   6      f
## 3       3      172       1861-11-28   1861-12-02          <NA>   4      f
## 4       4      180       1861-11-27   1861-11-28          <NA>  13      m
## 5       5       45       1861-11-22   1861-11-27          <NA>   8      f
## 6       6      180       1861-11-26   1861-11-29          <NA>  12      m
##   family_ID class complications x_loc y_loc
## 1        41     1           yes 142.5 100.0
## 2        41     1           yes 142.5 100.0
## 3        41     0           yes 142.5 100.0
## 4        61     2           yes 165.0 102.5
## 5        42     1           yes 145.0 120.0
## 6        42     2           yes 145.0 120.0
tail(measles_dat)
##     case_ID infector date_of_prodrome date_of_rash date_of_death age gender
## 183     183      184       1861-11-11   1861-11-15          <NA>   4      m
## 184     184       NA       1861-10-30   1861-11-06          <NA>  13   <NA>
## 185     185       82       1861-12-03   1861-12-07          <NA>   3      m
## 186     186       45       1861-11-22   1861-11-26          <NA>   6   <NA>
## 187     187       82       1861-12-07   1861-12-11          <NA>   0      m
## 188     188      175       1861-11-23   1861-11-27          <NA>   1   <NA>
##     family_ID class complications x_loc y_loc
## 183         4     0           yes 182.5 200.0
## 184        51     2           yes 182.5 200.0
## 185        21     0           yes 205.0 182.5
## 186        57     0           yes 212.5  90.0
## 187        21     0           yes 205.0 182.5
## 188        57     0           yes 212.5  90.0

From the package tidyr, the most common functions are:

• gather: makes wide data longer
• spread: makes long data wider

Example:

malaria <- tibble(
name = letters[1:10],
age = round(rnorm(10, 30, 10), 0),
gender = rep(c('f', 'm'), 5),
infection = rep(c('falciparum', 'vivax', 'vivax', 'vivax', 'vivax'), 2)
)
glimpse(malaria)
## Rows: 10
## Columns: 4
## $name <chr> "a", "b", "c", "d", "e", "f", "g", "h", "i", "j" ##$ age       <dbl> 29, 41, 39, 22, 33, 32, 48, 27, 37, 24
## $gender <chr> "f", "m", "f", "m", "f", "m", "f", "m", "f", "m" ##$ infection <chr> "falciparum", "vivax", "vivax", "vivax", "vivax", "falciparu~

malaria %>% spread(key = 'infection', gender)
## # A tibble: 10 x 4
##    name    age falciparum vivax
##    <chr> <dbl> <chr>      <chr>
##  1 a        29 f          NA
##  2 b        41 NA         m
##  3 c        39 NA         f
##  4 d        22 NA         m
##  5 e        33 NA         f
##  6 f        32 m          NA
##  7 g        48 NA         f
##  8 h        27 NA         m
##  9 i        37 NA         f
## 10 j        24 NA         m

# ggplot2

ggplot is an implementation of the concept of grammar of graphics that has been implemented in R by Hadley Wickham. He explains in his ggplot2 book that “the grammar is a mapping from data to aesthetic attributes (colour, shape, size) of geometric objects (points, lines, bars).”

The main components of a ggplot2 plot are:

• data frame
• aesthesic mappings this refers to the indications on how the data should be mapped (x, y) to colour, size, etc
• geoms refers to geometric objects such as points, lines, shapes
• facets for conditional plots
• coodinate system

## Basic functions in ggplot

ggplot() is the core function in ggplot2. The basic argument of the function is the data frame we want to plot (data). ggplot(data) then can be associated using the symbol + to other types of functions, such as the geoms that will draw a particular type of shape. Some of the most commonly used are:

• geom_point() : for points
• geom_line() : for lines
• geom_bar() : for bar charts
• geom_histogram(): for histograms

All of these commands will use the same syntax for the aesthetics (x, y, colour, fill, shape).

### GGplot example with the measles data set

Let’s use the measles data set from the outbreaks package that we imported above. In this case, we want to make a graph that displays the time-series of cases by week coloured by gender. We have to define that:

• x = time
• y = aggregated number of cases by week and gender
• colour = gender

An important thing to be of aware is that for a single instruction, ggplot will only use variables that belong to the same data set. So, we need to have the three variables (x, y, and colour) in the same data frame (with the same length).

head(measles_dat, 5)
##   case_ID infector date_of_prodrome date_of_rash date_of_death age gender
## 1       1       45       1861-11-21   1861-11-25          <NA>   7      f
## 2       2       45       1861-11-23   1861-11-27          <NA>   6      f
## 3       3      172       1861-11-28   1861-12-02          <NA>   4      f
## 4       4      180       1861-11-27   1861-11-28          <NA>  13      m
## 5       5       45       1861-11-22   1861-11-27          <NA>   8      f
##   family_ID class complications x_loc y_loc
## 1        41     1           yes 142.5 100.0
## 2        41     1           yes 142.5 100.0
## 3        41     0           yes 142.5 100.0
## 4        61     2           yes 165.0 102.5
## 5        42     1           yes 145.0 120.0

From the above command, we notice that the measles data set does not currently contain one of the three variables, the y variable (aggregated number of cases per week, by gender). This means we first need to reformat the data frame so that it contains the three variables we want to plot.

To reformat the data frame, we can use various functions explained above from the dplyr package.

measles_grouped <- measles_dat %>%
filter(!is.na(gender)) %>%
group_by(date_of_rash, gender) %>%
summarise(cases = n())
## summarise() has grouped output by 'date_of_rash'. You can override using the .groups argument.

## # A tibble: 5 x 3
## # Groups:   date_of_rash [4]
##   date_of_rash gender cases
##   <date>       <fct>  <int>
## 1 1861-11-03   m          1
## 2 1861-11-08   f          1
## 3 1861-11-11   f          1
## 4 1861-11-11   m          1
## 5 1861-11-13   m          1

Once the data frame is ready, plotting is easy:

ggplot(data = measles_grouped) +
geom_line(aes(x = date_of_rash, y = cases, colour = gender))

By default, ggplot makes several decisions for us, such as the colours used, the size of the lines, the font size, etc. Sometimes we may want to change them to improve the visualisation.

Here is an alternative way of presenting the same data. Modify some of the lines, and see how the plot changes.

p <- ggplot(data = measles_grouped,
aes(x = date_of_rash, y = cases, fill = gender)) +
geom_bar(stat = 'identity', colour = 'black', alpha = 0.5) +
facet_wrap(~ gender, nrow = 2) +
xlab('Date of onset') +
ylab('measles cases') +
ggtitle('Measles Cases in Hagelloch (Germany) in 1861') +
theme(strip.background = element_blank(),
strip.text.x = element_blank()) +
theme(legend.position = c(0.9, 0.2))  +
scale_fill_manual(values =c('purple', 'green'))

p

Finally, ggplot has a useful feature that allows users to add layers on top of existing ggplot objects. For instance, if we decide to change the title and colour of the gender variable after we finished the plot, we do not have to make the plot again. We simply add a command to overwrite the previous plot.

p +
ggtitle('another title') +
scale_fill_manual(values =c('blue', 'lightblue'))
## Scale for 'fill' is already present. Adding another scale for 'fill', which
## will replace the existing scale.

# Further learning

To apply these basic concepts to a particular case, I recommend doing the practical “An outbreak of gastroenteritis in Stegen, Germany” from the RECON learn website https://www.reconlearn.org/post/stegen.html

Much of the content for this basic R tutorial came from well-known books by Hadley Wickham which are mostly available online.

## Contributors

• Zulma M. Cucunuba: initial version
• Zhian N. Kamvar: minor edits
• Kelly A. Charniga: minor edits

Contributions are welcome via pull requests.

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